Medicinal cannabis campaigner Heather Gladman, 58, to plead guilty to drug charges

cannabis hero Heather Gladman

A Gippsland grandmother and long-time campaigner for medicinal cannabis says she will plead guilty to drug charges because she wants to take a stand on the issue.

Heather Marie Gladman, 58, was charged with growing and possessing the drug of dependence cannabis, after police raided her Stradbroke home in February.

Police told the Sale Magistrates Court they seized 46 cannabis plants from Ms Gladman's home, some of which were more than a metre-and-a-half tall.

She told police she supplied cannabis to sick children, including a nine-year-old boy with an inoperable brain tumour.

"I've never sold cannabis; I just want to help people," she told the court.

Ms Gladman had previously told the ABC she had also supplied the drug to a man with type 2 diabetes, a woman with lung cancer and "lots of people suffering anxiety and insomnia".

An online petition in support of Ms Gladman calling for an amnesty for users and suppliers of medicinal cannabis has attracted more than 1,000 signatures.

She went on a hunger strike for 18 days as a protest against her charges.
Gladman 'just wanted to tell the truth'

Ms Gladman, who was unrepresented at the hearing, was urged by the magistrate to get a lawyer.

"I just wanted to tell the truth," Ms Gladman said. "And I didn't think I needed a lawyer if I told the truth."

The former nursing student will return to court in May for a plea hearing.

The Victorian Government introduced a bill to State Parliament in December to legalise the cultivation of medicinal cannabis and access to it in exceptional circumstances.

That bill has been amended and is expected to gain bi-partisan support when it goes to the Victorian Upper House next week.

A trial for the cultivation of medicinal cannabis is underway in Victoria and the Government predicted medicinal cannabis in the form of oil or tablet would be available to children suffering severe epilepsy seizures by 2017.

The Federal Government passed legislation to allow the manufacture of suitable medicinal cannabis products in Australia.

reference: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-03-16/medicinal-cannabis-heather-gladman-pleads-guilty-to-drug-charges/7251140







Dedicated to Heather Gladman, RESPECT

Biochemist Dennis Hill interview; Cannabis oil as a cure for cancer.

Background; Dennis Hill is a biochemist who graduated from the University of Houston Texas, doing his Graduate Work at Baylor Medical School.Employed as a researcher at the renowned MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston Texas.
Five years ago Dennis was diagnosed with aggressive stage 3 prostate cancer, thanks to cannabis oil he is now cancer free.
In the following video interview by Natalie Mazurek (2nd year chemistry student), Dennis explains in chemistry terms, how the essential oil derived from cannabis kills cancer cells.
In the interview Dennis states "how it was a trivial process using cannabis oil to cure himself of stage 3 prostate cancer.
No side effects, just a feeling of well being"
In this enlightening interview, Dennis explains in detail as only a biochemist could, how the cannabis works with the human bodies endocannabinoid system to kill cancer cells.
Dennis Hill's first Biopsy report
Dennis Hill's second biopsy report

Interview by Natalie Mazurek, applied chemistry student .

 

Interview glossary

Decarboxylation; (fundamental in the process of extracting cannabis oil)
Without this process the oil will not kill cancer cells!

Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2). Usually, decarboxylation refers to a reaction of carboxylic acids, removing a carbon atom from a carbon chain. The reverse process, which is the first chemical step in photosynthesis, is called carboxylation, the addition of CO2 to a compound. Enzymes that catalyze decarboxylations are called decarboxylases or, the more formal term, carboxy-lyases (EC number 4.1.1).

In organic chemistry
The term "decarboxylation" literally means removal of the COOH (carboxyl group) and its replacement with a proton. The term simply relates the state of the reactant and product. Decarboxylation is one of the oldest organic reactions, since it often entails simple pyrolysis, and volatile products distill from the reactor. Heating is required because the reaction is less favorable at low temperatures. Yields are highly sensitive to conditions. In retrosynthesis, decarboxylation reactions can be considered the opposite of homologation reactions, in that the chain length becomes one carbon shorter. Metals, especially copper compounds,[1] are usually required. Such reactions proceed via the intermediacy of metal carboxylate complexes.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Decarboxylation

endocannabinoid system;
The endocannabinoid system is a group of neuromodulatory lipids and their receptors in

the brain that are involved in a variety of physiological processes including

appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory; it mediates the psychoactive effects of

cannabis and, broadly speaking, includes:

    The endogenous arachidonate-based lipids, anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamide,

AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG); these are known as "endocannabinoids" and are

physiological ligands for the cannabinoid receptors. Endocannabinoids are all

eicosanoids.[1]
    The enzymes that synthesize and degrade the endocannabinoids, such as fatty acid

amide hydrolase or monoacylglycerol lipase.
    The cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, two G protein-coupled receptors that are

located in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

reference; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocannabinoid_system

Ligand;
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a

biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is

usually a signal-triggering molecule, binding to a site on a target protein. In DNA-

ligand binding studies, the ligand can be a small molecule, ion,[1] or protein[2] that

binds to the DNA double helix.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ligand_%28biochemistry%29

receptors;
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule usually found

embedded within the plasma membrane surface of a cell that receives chemical signals

from outside the cell. When such chemical signals bind to a receptor, they cause some

form of cellular/tissue response, e.g. a change in the electrical activity of the

cell. In this sense, a receptor is a protein molecule that recognises and responds to

endogenous chemical signals, e.g. the acetylcholine receptor recognizes and responds

to its endogenous ligand, acetylcholine. However sometimes in pharmacology, the term

is also used to include other proteins that are drug targets, such as enzymes,

transporters and ion channels.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Receptor_%28biochemistry%29


mimetic medicine;
Mimesis (/maɪˈmiːsəs/; Ancient Greek: μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai),

"to imitate," from μῖμος (mimos), "imitator, actor") is a critical and philosophical

term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation,

mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act

of expression, and the presentation of the self.[1]

In ancient Greece, mimesis was an idea that governed the creation of works of art, in

particular, with correspondence to the physical world understood as a model for

beauty, truth, and the good. Plato contrasted mimesis, or imitation, with diegesis, or

narrative. After Plato, the meaning of mimesis eventually shifted toward a

specifically literary function in ancient Greek society, and its use has changed and

been reinterpreted many times since then.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimesis

relating to, characterized by, or exhibiting mimicry <mimetic coloring of a butterfly>
reference;http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mimetic

THC;
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or more precisely its main isomer (−)-trans-Δ9-

tetrahydrocannabinol ( (6aR,10aR)-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), is the principal

psychoactive constituent (or cannabinoid) of cannabis. First isolated in 1964 by

Israeli scientists Prof. Raphael Mechoulam and Dr. Yechiel Gaoni at the Weizmann

Institute of Science[8][9][10] it is a water-clear glassy solid when cold, which

becomes viscous and sticky if warmed. A pharmaceutical formulation of (−)-trans-Δ9-

tetrahydrocannabinol, known by its INN dronabinol, is available by prescription in the

U.S. and Canada under the brand name Marinol. An aromatic terpenoid, THC has a very

low solubility in water, but good solubility in most organic solvents, specifically

lipids and alcohols.[6] THC, CBD, CBN, CBC, CBG and about 80 other molecules make up

the phytocannabinoid family.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrahydrocannabinol

cbd (cannabidiol)
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of at least 85 active cannabinoids identified in cannabis.[4]

It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the plant's extract.[5]

CBD is considered to have a wider scope of medical applications than

tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).[5] An orally-administered liquid containing CBD has

received orphan drug status in the US, for use as a treatment for Dravet syndrome,

under the brand name Epidiolex.[6]

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabidiol

 Endogenous( made within the body)
Endogenous substances are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or

cell.[1]

Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are DNA sequences derived from viruses that are

ancestrally inserted into the genomes of germ cells. These sequences, which may be

fragments of viruses, or entire viral genomes (proviruses), can persist in the

germline, being passed on from one generation to the next as host alleles.

Endogenous processes include senescence, the menstrual cycle and the self-sustained

circadian rhythms of plants and animals.

In some biological systems, endogeneity refers to the recipient of DNA (usually in

prokaryotes). However, because of homeostasis, discerning between internal and

external influences is often difficult.

Endogenous transcription factors refers to those that are manufactured by the cell, as

opposed to cloned transcription factors.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endogeny_%28biology%29


Exogenous  ( outside of the body , ex plants)

In biology, an exogenous contrast agent in medical imaging for example, is a liquid

injected into the patient intravenously that enhances visibility of a pathology, such

as a tumor. An exogenous factor is any material that is present and active in an

individual organism or living cell but that originated outside of that organism, as

opposed to an endogenous factor.

Exogenous factors in medicine include both pathogens and therapeutics.
DNA introduced to cells via transfection or viral infection (transduction) is an

exogenous factor.
Carcinogens are exogenous factors.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exogeny

Biomimetic;
Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of

nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.[1] The terms biomimetics and

biomimicry come from Ancient Greek: βίος (bios), life, and μίμησις (mīmēsis),

imitation, from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), to imitate, from μῖμος (mimos), actor. A

closely related field is bionics.[2]

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomimetics

Anandamide;
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is an endogenous

cannabinoid neurotransmitter. The name is taken from the Sanskrit word (and Hinduistic

religious term) ananda, which means "joy, bliss, delight", and amide.[1][2] It is

synthesized from N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine by multiple pathways.[3] It

is degraded primarily by the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme, which converts

anandamide into ethanolamine and arachidonic acid. As such, inhibitors of FAAH lead to

elevated anandamide levels and are being pursued for therapeutic use.[4][5]

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Anandamide

cb1;
Cannabinoid receptors are part of the cannabinoid receptor system in the brain and are

involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation,

mood, and memory.

Cannabinoid receptors are of a class of cell membrane receptors under the G protein-

coupled receptor superfamily.[1][2][3] As is typical of G protein-coupled receptors,

the cannabinoid receptors contain seven transmembrane spanning domains.[4] Cannabinoid

receptors are activated by three major groups of ligands, endocannabinoids (produced

by the mammilary body), plant cannabinoids (such as Cannabidiol, produced by the

cannabis plant) and synthetic cannabinoids (such as HU-210). All of the

endocannabinoids and plant cannabinoids are lipophilic, such as fat soluble compounds.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabinoid_receptor

Cannabinoid;
Cannabinoids are a class of diverse chemical compounds that act on cannabinoid

receptors on cells that repress neurotransmitter release in the brain. Ligands for

these receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body

by humans and animals),[1] the phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis and some other

plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured artificially). The most notable

cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary

psychoactive compound of cannabis.[2][3] Cannabidiol (CBD) is another major

constituent of the plant.[4] There are at least 85 different cannabinoids isolated

from cannabis, exhibiting varied effects.[5]

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cannabinoid

signalling metabolites;
Metabolites are the intermediates and products of metabolism. The term metabolite is

usually restricted to small molecules. Metabolites have various functions, including

fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic

activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions

with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones). A primary metabolite

is directly involved in normal "growth", development, and reproduction. Ethylene is an

example of a primary metabolite produced in large-scale by industrial microbiology. A

secondary metabolite is not directly involved in those processes, but usually has an

important ecological function. Examples include antibiotics and pigments such as

resins and terpenes etc.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabolite

Ceramide;
Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules. A ceramide is composed of sphingosine

and a fatty acid. Ceramides are found in high concentrations within the cell membrane

of cells. They are one of the component lipids that make up sphingomyelin, one of the

major lipids in the lipid bilayer. Contrary to previous assumptions that ceramides and

other sphingolipids found in cell membrane were purely structural elements, ceramide

can participate in a variety of cellular signaling: examples include regulating

differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death (PCD) of cells.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceramide

Exo–cannabinoids;

Phyto–cannabinoids, also known as cannabinoids or exo–cannabinoids, are differentiated

from endo-cannabinoids due to their production from enzymes in a plant opposed to

being manufactured in a human, or better yet, a mammal. Cannabinoids come in many

shapes and functions. Today, there are many known unique phytocannnabinoids and

synthetic cannabinoids. Laboratories, like Montana Biotech, are currently assisting in

cannabinoid testing. This service can help patients get the most from this ancient

plant, cannabis.

reference;http://montanabiotech.com/2013/03/25/cannabinoid-facts-thc-cbd-cbn-cbc-thcv-cbg-and-other-unique-phyto-cannabinoids/

Peptides;
Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are

naturally occurring biological molecules. They are short chains of amino acid monomers

linked by peptide (amide) bonds. The covalent chemical bonds are formed when the

carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another. The shortest

peptides are dipeptides, consisting of 2 amino acids joined by a single peptide bond,

followed by tripeptides, tetrapeptides, etc. A polypeptide is a long, continuous, and

unbranched peptide chain. Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of

biological oligomers and polymers, alongside nucleic acids, oligosaccharides and

polysaccharides, etc.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Peptide

Metastatic lesion
Metastasis, or metastatic disease, is the spread of a cancer or disease from one organ

or part to another not directly connected with it. The new occurrences of disease thus

generated are referred to as metastases /mə ˈtæs tə siːz/ (sometimes abbreviated

"mets").[1][2] It was previously thought that only malignant tumor cells and

infections have the capacity to metastasize (also spelled metastasise); however, this

is being reconsidered due to new research.[3] Metastasis is a Greek word meaning

"displacement", from μετά, meta, "next", and στάσις, stasis, "placement".

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metastasis

Carboxylation;
Carboxylation in biochemistry is a posttranslational modification of glutamate

residues, to γ-carboxyglutamate, in proteins. It occurs primarily in proteins involved

in the blood clotting cascade, specifically factors II, VII, IX, and X, protein C, and

protein S, and also in some bone proteins. This modification is required for these

proteins to function. Carboxylation occurs in the liver and is performed by γ-glutamyl

carboxylase.[4]

The carboxylase requires vitamin K as a cofactor and performs the reaction in a

processive manner.[5] γ-carboxyglutamate binds calcium, which is essential for its

activity.[6] For example, in prothrombin, calcium binding allows the protein to

associate with the plasma membrane in platelets, bringing it into close proximity with

the proteins that cleave prothrombin to active thrombin after injury.[7]

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carboxylation

ATP;
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme,

often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.[1]

ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. It is one of the end

products of photophosphorylation, cellular respiration, and fermentation and used by

enzymes and structural proteins in many cellular processes, including biosynthetic

reactions, motility, and cell division.[2] One molecule of ATP contains three

phosphate groups, and it is produced by a wide variety of enzymes, including ATP

synthase, from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and

various phosphate group donors. Substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative

phosphorylation in cellular respiration, and photophosphorylation in photosynthesis

are three major mechanisms of ATP biosynthesis.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Adenosine_triphosphate

mitochondrial (mt) membrane;
Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins are proteins which exist in the membranes of

mitochondria and which serve to transport[1] molecules and other factors such as ions

into or out of the organelles.

reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_membrane_transport_protein


Endoplasmic reticulum;
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle in the cells of eukaryotic

organisms that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or

tubes known as cisternae. The endoplasm is the inner core of the cytoplasm and the

membranes of the ER are continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope.


reference;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endoplasmic_reticulum

2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol)
2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid, an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor.[1][2] It is an ester formed from the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid and glycerol. It is present at relatively high levels in the central nervous system, with cannabinoid neuromodulatory effects. It has been found in maternal bovine and human milk. The chemical was first described in 1994-1995, although it had been discovered some time before that. The activities of Phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) mediate its formation. 2-AG is synthesized from arachidonic acid-containing diacylglycerol (DAG).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-Arachidonoylglycerol

Dr Cristina Sanchez PhD video interview on medical marijuana and cancer

Biochemist Dr Cristina Sanchez PhD

Dr Cristina Sanchez PhD answers questions about medical cannabis also commonly known as medical marijuana.

Cristina has studied the effect of cannabinoids on lipid and carbohydrate intermediate metabolism first and on cancer cell proliferation later. She obtained her PhD with Honors in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Complutense University in 2000. During her postdoc at Dr. Piomelli’s laboratory (University of California Irvine, 2000-2003) she studied the involvement of another group of bioactive lipids (lysophosphatidic acid and related compounds) on pain initiation.

In 2004, Cristina returned to Spain with a “Ramón y Cajal” contract (aimed at repatriating Spanish researchers from abroad) and she started coordinating a new line of research within Dr. Guzmán’s laboratory. In particular, the goal of her research is to understand and exploit cannabinoids as potential antitumoral agents in breast cancer. More recently, she has also focused her attention on new cannabinoid receptors and their possible involvement in cannabinoid antitumoral action in breast cancer and other type of tumors.
Reference:http://www.bbm1.ucm.es/cannabis/crist...
In this interview Cristina discusses her research on cannabinoids and it's effect on cancer cells, whilst also answering several interesting questions from patients with various types of cancer.

 

 

Legalise cannabis for medical use: top professor

Emeritus Professor David Penington

Emeritus Professor David Penington says Australia is behind the times on the medical use of cannabis. Photo: Simon Schluter

The NSW government's clinical trial of medicinal cannabis is inappropriate for patients suffering extreme pain, and the drug should be legally approved for patients diagnosed by doctors, a paper in a top medical journal argues.

"We are behind the times on medical cannabis," writes David Penington, an emeritus professor at Melbourne University, in a paper in the Medical Journal of Australia on Sunday.

"Twenty three states in the US have legalised use of cannabis for medical conditions, as has Canada since 2001. Other countries approving it include Israel, Holland and the Czech Republic."

Dr Penington, a public health and medicinal marijuana advocate, was named the 2014 Victorian of the Year.

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